This monograph is intended to give the reader an appreciation of the wealth of phases, elements and inorganic compounds, which crystallize in layer-type or two dimensional structures. Originally this work was planned as a short review article but the large number of phases made it grow out to the size of a book. As is evident from the arrangement of the chapters our point of view was gradually transmuting from geometric to chemical. Moreover, the decision about the compounds that should be discussed was taken only during the course of the work, as is partly evident from the sequence of the references. For chemical or geometrical reason we have included also certain layered chain and molecular structures as well as some layered structures whose layers are linked by hydrogen bonds, thus are in fact three-dimensional. Instead of writing only a review with pseudo-scientific interpretations that later turn out to be wrong anyway we thought it more profitable to include the crystallographic data which are scattered in various original articles and hand books but never in one single volume. We have transcribed many of the data in order to make them correspond with the standard settings of the International Tables for X-Ray Crystallography. The figures are consistent with the data given in the tables. We apologize for errors and hope that their number is at a reasonably low level in spite of the time pressure.