This book describes the main ideas, methods, results and resources relevant to the study of bionanosensor networks. Its primary goal is to spark application-oriented studies of molecular communication; that is, to investigate how collections of bionanosensors, referred to here as bionanosensor networks, can be used for practical purposes such as nanomedical sensing. In particular, the book focuses on two key functionalities for nanomedical applications: target detection and target tracking. Bionanosensor networks represent a new interdisciplinary research area that expands the traditional area of network engineering by incorporating the latest advances in bionanotechnology. These networks consist of spatially distributed bionanosensors that are engineered with the help of bionanotechnology. As a research area, bionanosensor networks are aimed at designing robust networks on the basis of spatially distributed bionanosensors, as well as at developing innovative applications of those networks.