This book is a new and revised second edition of the book ‘The Climate of the Arctic’, published in 2003. It presents a comprehensive analysis of the current state of knowledge related to the climate of the Arctic, using the latest meteorological data. All meteorological elements are described in detail and an up-to-date review of the available literature for each element is given. Climatic regions are distinguished and described. The monograph also provides an account of the present state of research on climate change and variability in the Arctic for three time scales: the Holocene, the last Millennium, and the instrumental period. The book concludes with a presentation of the scenarios of the Arctic climate in the 21st century. This monograph is intended for all those with a general interest in the fields of meteorology, climatology, and with a knowledge of the application of statistics in these areas.