Over the past 25 years, the growing impor cardiovascular. We hope that by having this tance of genetic factors in the basic understand compilation of cardiovascular diseases in one ing of human cardiovascular disease has become source, it will be of value to all who are involved apparent. Prior to this time, there was an era in the care of patients with cardiovascular dis when cardiovascular disease was first viewed at ease or their families. the diagnostic level followed by an era when The first six chapters of this book delineate cardiovascular disease was viewed at a treatment conditions related to congenital cardiac mal level. The first era occurred at the turn of the formations. Their etiology is not precisely century with the first clinical recognition of known, so we have included chapters that dis symptoms and patterns for diagnosis of car cuss many aspects of congenital cardiac mal diovascular diseases. The development of formations. The first chapter provides discus diagnostic methodology, such as radiographic sion of mechanisms of maldevelopment of the studies and electrocardiography, led to marked heart. We believe that these mechanisms pro changes in our understanding of cardiovascular vide a basis for understanding the genetic and disease. This era was followed by improved environmental factors which operate to produce methods of medical treatment, introduction congenital cardiac malformations. Chapter 2 describes the occurrence of con of medication such as antibiotics, and more genital cardiac malformations in families and sophisticated surgical techniques.