chapter1 Bees in the Animal Kingdom and in Earth’s History 1 chapter2 The Bee—An Insect chapter3 What Does “Social” Mean in the Animal Kingdom? 25 Anonymous Societies 26 Family Associations 28 The Insect Colony 30 Social Classifications 34 chapter4 The Traits of Bees and Their System chapter5 Solitary Bees and Social Development 45 Solitary Bees 45 On the Way to a Colony Unique Mating Behavior 75 Threats from Outside, and Enemies Within the Ranks 77 chapter6 Bumblebees and Stingless Bees Bumblebees Stingless Bees 97 84 83 63 35 15 chapter7 On the Summit of Social Insect Life 7 The Genus Apis: Species and Races The Domestic Honeybee The Comb The Colony and Its Individuals Brood Rearing and Division of Labor What Holds a Colony Together 8 How New Colonies Originate Sensory Capabilities 2 Artists of Orientation The Language of Honeybees 8 chapter8 Nest Aids for Wild Bees 145 Abridged Bibliography and Further Reading 1 Index 155 15 13 136 13 130 12 126 122 118 118 108 10 Preface People generally think of bees as insects that fly out of hives and make us honey. Actually, there are many different kinds of bees, most of which live relatively hidden from our view. Maybe some of us are familiar with bumblebees, but who would recognize the solitary bees, which considerably o- number the social bees? These little-observed bees are often dubbed “wild bees” to distinguish them from our honeymakers.