This book is devoted to the physics of electron-beam, ion-beam, optical, and x-ray lithography. The need for this book results from the following considerations. The astonishing achievements in microelectronics are in large part connected with successfully applying the relatively new technology of processing (changing the prop erties of) a material into a device whose component dimensions are submicron, called photolithography. In this method the device is imaged as a pattern on a metal film that has been deposited onto a transparent substrate and by means of a broad stream of light is transferred to a semiconductor wafer within which the physical structure of the devices and the integrated circuit connections are formed layer by layer. The smallest dimensions of the device components are limited by the diffraction of the light when the pattern is transferred and are approximately the same as the wavelength of the light. Photolithography by light having a wavelength of A ~ 0.4 flm has made it possible to serially produce integrated circuits having devices whose minimal size is 2-3 flm in the 4 pattern and having 10-105 transistors per circuit.