The Radon transform is an important topic in integral geometry which deals with the problem of expressing a function on a manifold in terms of its integrals over certain submanifolds. Solutions to such problems have a wide range of applications, namely to partial differential equations, group representations, X-ray technology, nuclear magnetic resonance scanning, and tomography. This second edition, significantly expanded and updated, presents new material taking into account some of the progress made in the field since 1980. Aimed at beginning graduate students, this monograph will be useful in the classroom or as a resource for self-study. Readers will find here an accessible introduction to Radon transform theory, an elegant topic in integral geometry.