Trafficking in human beings receives great attention in international politics. It is often stated that trafficking in human beings constitutes “a grave human rights violation”. This book explores what this statement actually means and investi-gates links between trafficking in human beings and human rights. What are the human rights obligations of States concerning trafficking in human beings and a Human Rights-Based Approach to Trafficking in Human Beings? The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings paves the way for States to apply a Human Rights-Based Approach. The book shows to which extent States actually implement this approach.