Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related, nonmalignant condition that may lead to bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. The standard treatment of BPH has been ordinary loop transurethral prostatectomy, but new therapies have been developed as a combined result of research, technological advances, and the cumulative experience of urological surgeons. Among the most promising therapeutic alternatives to ordinary loop resection are those that deliver topical or interstitial heat to prostatic tissue. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy, visual laser ablation with the Nd:YAG laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and transurethral electrovaporization are some of the techniques described in this book. These innovative procedures, employed by skilled urologists using state-of-the-art instruments, hold forth the promise of improved quality of life for BPH patients and represent significant advances in the field of urology.