Four years have elapsed since the preparation of the original Russian version of this book. This is a long time when dealing with such actively expanding fields of oceanography as research into small-scale structures and the investigation of hydro physical processes. Over this period new quick-response devices have been developed and successfully used for measurements taken in various ocean areas. Improvements in high-frequency meters used to measure hydrophysical parameters has enabled workers to obtain more accurate absolute values of the fluctuations measured by such devices. In view of this scientific progress, some of the ideas presented in this book now require additional explanation. Great care should be used in dealing with the absolute fluctuation values of hydro physical fields, since the methods used for the determination of the accuracy of the high-frequency measuring devices have been imperfect in the past. Never theless, it would appear that the results of the investigations summarized in this book have not lost their importance, and that the established laws governing small-scale pro cesses in the ocean are of a sufficiently universal nature and, as such, have not been shattered with the qualitative and quantitative advances in devices used for measurements taken in oceans. The authors feel that their work is of interest to English-speaking readers. The appearance of the English translation of the book is, to a very large extent, due to the tremendous amount of editing work brilliantly done by Prof. H. Tennekes.